Bridget Coates, 49, of Falls Church, Va., spent the money from the school's Home School Association for items such as designer luxury fashion, the U.S. Justice Department says in a news release.
Coates was the elementary school's principal from 2012 to 2018.
Coates began stealing the money from the association in 2012. Prosecutors say she had access to the account and was allowed to write checks for school-related purposes.
From 2012 through 2017, Coates wrote about 66 unauthorized checks and deposited at least $175,000 into her personal bank account.
She pleaded guilty in April to wire fraud.
In addition to the prison sentence, Coates must also reimburse the Archdiocese of Washington $175,000.